Friday, January 31, 2020
The Vietnam War and its Effect on American Society Essay The Vietnam War was started by President Eisenhower. He was the first to involve the United States in the conflict between North and South Vietnam, by putting in CIA operatives and military advisors in South Vietnam (ushistory). The USs involvement grew with every passing president. President Kennedy was the first to put soldiers in Vietnam. Johnson orders the first official combat of the United States soldiers. Finally, the war ended after eighteen years after it was declared by President Richard Nixon. The war had a lasting effect on all parties involved. The US lost its first war, the objective of stopping communism from spreading failed. The war was also the first that the people and soldiers couldnt look back on with pride of a sense of accomplishment (Hochgesang, Lawyer, Stevenson 1). Due to the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s secrecy and over reach of power, a distrust of the United States government, as an institution, grew that still exists today. The fall out of the war had massive, negative impacts on south East Asian countries. More countries would fall to communism. The devastation of the war caused economic repercussions that still effect countries today. Not only did the war cause lasting damage multiple countries, but it allowed situations that caused the death, slaughter, and starvation of millions in the years following the war (sparknotes). The Vietnam War was started based on the Domino Theory. This theory was adopted by President Eisenhower; it concisely stated that if South Vietnam fell to communism, many other South East Asia countries would become more accepting of communism and eventually adopt it (vietnamawbb 1). Ã¢â¬Å"If Indochina falls, Thailand is put in an almost impossible position. The same is true of Malaya with its rubber and tin. The same is true of Indonesia. If this whole part of South East Asia goes under Communist domination or Communist influence, Japan, who trades and must trade with this area in order to exist must inevitably be oriented towards the Communist regimeÃ¢â¬ (vietnamawbb 1) The Domino effect was the driving force for the VietnamÃ War. With the end of World War II, the USSR was the greatest threat to Democracy and Capitalism. Vietnam, being in a centralized location, allowed many of the trade routes of South East Asian countries to pass through it. Many traders would have to come into contact with the political and economic structure within Vietnam, and through this eventually communism as a form of government would have to be accepted. The involvement of the United States lead more counties fall to communism. If the United States had not been so reckless with its military investment less countries would have turned to communist governments. The United States was the first domino in the South East Asian countries establishing communistic governments. American leadership viewed communism as an economic and legal philosophy that destroys justice and enslaves men (Nixon 1). This perception, along with the military threats that the communist countries posed at the time, made communism the enemy of freedom and Democracy. The people of the United States had always fought for freedom: The Revolutionary War, The Civil War, World War I, and World War II. Now the world saw the new face of oppression, Communism. That drove the people and the politicians to purposely involve themselves in the Vietnam conflict. The eighteen year war was a complete and utter failure. It cost the American people billions of dollars, almost 60,000 Americans lives and hundred thousands more were injured. The war did not accomplish what it was supposed to do, the objective, stopping communism spreading to South Vietnam, was not achieved. Within two years of the United States ending its military involvement the north took over the south and annexed it forming the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (ushistory 1). In fact, due to the desperate measures that the US took to try and rout the enemy caused, neighboring countries, Laos and Cambodia to fall to Communism. In March of 1969 the United States started a carpet bombing campaign that would last four years. Authorized by President Nixon the operation was kept secret from congress and the American people. Along with the bombing campaign the US also invaded both Laos and Cambodia. The goal of both operations was to disrupt supply lines that aided North Vietnam. In 1973, the carpet bombing campaign became public knowledge and was stopped due to public opinion. This massive bombing displaced almost thirty percent of the populations from both countries,Ã causing massive instability of the governments there (rabble 1). Through the USs involvement in those countries, communist government were established. Only through the USs bombing campaign and invasion were the communist rebels were able to take over the weakened governments. Another failure and another domino falling because of the United States. A Large Part of the Vietnam War that cause a major change in American society was the discovery and recognition of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder or PTSD and the physical disabilities that many soldiers received during the war. It begins with an event in which the individual is threatened with his or her own death or the destruction of a body part, to such humiliation that their personal identity may be lost.(Hochgesang, Lawyer, Stevenson 1). This is the definition of the traumatic event that causes PTSD. Symptoms include feeling: helplessness, worthlessness, dejection, anger, depression, insomnia, and a tendency to react to tense situations by using survival tactics (Hochgesang, Lawyer, Stevenson 1). PTSD wasnt identified until the 80s (Hochgesang, Lawyer, Stevenson 1). When thousands of Vietnam veterans were reporting the same symptoms. The effects of PTSD usually dont appear until about a year after the traumatic experience, this along with a limited understanding of the human psyche, made it easy for the government to disregard PTSD (Hochgesang, Lawyer, Stevenson 1). The governments disregard for the veterans mental health caused resentment toward the Government, for using them and then not taking care of them after the war. In Vietnam, not only were psychological problems but physical problems like, the massive drug problem among the soldiers. At the start of the war Marijuana was widely used and the soldiers first choice. Then the media found out that drugs were in mass usage in the United States military, the government quickly banned the smoking to marijuana to stop the bad press that came from the drug. Soon after, many soldiers turned to heroin for their fix. This switch was enjoyed by many soldiers because of the different effects of the drugs marijuana slowed down the perception of time, heroin sped up the perception of time. The drugs and alcohol in Vietnam were so inexpensive that they were easily taken to try and forget the horrors that they saw on the battlefield (Hochgesang, Lawyer, Stevenson 1). But with the return of the soldiers to the United States, many had addictions that were exponentially harder to maintain because of the stricter drugs laws in theÃ US. Most veterans were still too young to buy alcohol in the United States. One of the worst things by far that came from the many publicized addiction employers used serving Vietnam as evidence of a drug addiction, and were refused employment (Hochgesang, Lawyer, Stevenson 1). The movement against the Vietnam War did become widely popularized until 1965 (History 1). Contrary to what many people believe before 1965, there was wide spread support of the war. Only two congressmen voted against president Johnson waging war against north Vietnam (ushistory 1). The student lead protests had the most support during 1968 after a successful North offensive. Over 40,000 men were forced into service each month, through the governments usage of the draft (history 1). This only cause less and less support for the war form the people. The Tet Offensive in January of 1968 was a serious blow to US moral. By February of 1968 only thirty five percent approved of the war and fifty percent actively disapproved of it. Many war veterans joined in the anti-war protest (history 1). As more and more people joined in protest, and more and more information was revealed about the war crimes and horrors that happened in Vietnam, support for the war rapidly decreased until President Nixon announced the end to the USs involvement in the conflict (history 1). The amount of protests that ended in violence and deaths of protesters caused approval of the government to plummet. The United States hiding operations from the American people, like the bombing and invasion of Laos and Cambodia, cause an ingrained distrust of the government in issues like transparences and being morally just that has lasted decades. Over all, the Vietnam war was a failure for United States. The government failed to secure public support of the war after, their promises of a quick war fell short. Not only did they not secure it, they lost support of the American people in the later years of the conlict. The American government made an entire generation of veterans feel like they were tools to be used and thrown away. The Government did not recognize a massive disorder that thousands to veterans got during the war. They lost the trust of generations. The War also cost tens of thousands American lives and destroyed Millions more after the US left the conflict. The wars objective also failed, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia all established communist government in the years following the war. The Vietnam War was an overall failure and disappointment that still effects people today.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Dr. Harold Glucksberg vs. The State of Washington 'Choosing death before dishonor is seen by some philosophers and ethicists as a rational reason to commit suicide.' In the 1994 case of Glucksberg v. Washington (Otherwise acknowledged as Compassion In Dying v. The State Of Washington), Harold Glucksberg, alongside the right-to-die organization Compassion In Dying, filed a suit in opposition to the state of Washington for three fatally ill patients he treated. Dr. Glucksberg and 'Compassion in Dying' set their case saying that the ban against doctor-assisted suicide was violating the right patients right of due process and placed an unjustified burden on terminally ill patients who required help to stop suffering misery from the disease that plagued their body and/or mind. While the case was in the state of Washington, it was seen in the plaintiff's favor: Dr. Harold Glucksberg and Compassion In Dying. Because of this the state laws changed in support of doctor-assisted suicide. The state of Washington still opposed the idea of this so they ordered an appeal. By 1997 the case, along with another case, (Quill v. Vacco), reached the Supreme Court. The decision in the Supreme Court did not, however, meet up to the original case. The defense won the trial. The case had a many important questions to it. In one question: is physician-assisted suicide morally, ethically, legally correct, and/or fair to anyone? Ethically Correct? ?One ought not to commit an act ...
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Aviation enplaments are soaring higher each year and they are deplaning into a system that is already saturated and bulging. The industry must expand and keep pace with this growth but this is being met with fierce opposition. This paper introduces the opposition coalitions and groups that are surmounting. It takes an in depth look at their number one concern, aircraft noise, and the effect it has on the health of those in the local airport communities. Several health studies are referenced and statistical information is offered throughout. Noise abatement is addressed and future growth figures are offered. John Q. Public wants to fly. He wants to fly in more numbers now than ever before. Forecasters explain that these numbers show no sign of decreasing in the near future. The only drawback to the industry is that the system is already saturated and bulging. As the demand to fly continues to Ã¢â¬Ëtake-off', it is bringing with it serious delay, capacity, and environmental concerns. These issues must be addressed and answered before we can expand the aviation infrastructure. Airport planners have several attainable ways to accommodate and alleviate the major concerns to the system, but everyone of them are facing fierce opposition from those that feel they, and their communities, will be adversely affected. New runways, or extensions, have been proposed at 60 of the top 100 airports that lead in the number of annual enplanements. Studies for new airports have been conducted in New York, Boston, Seattle, San Diego, Chicago, and Miami, to name a few (Wells, 1996). For nearly every organization that is steadfast on building or expanding existing airports, there are a growing number of coalitions that oppose their ideas and are ready to challenge them. Most are local groups and communities that are confronting the governmental bodies in their own areas; but there are a number of national groups and even world-wide groups forming. With the availability of the World Wide Web, they are uniting in larger numbers and communicating their concerns with global reach. Pointing your web browser in the direction of any area proposing expansion and you will find numerous local groups and coalitions fighting to dismiss it. One such group is Sane Aviation For Everyone, Inc. (SAFE). This is a coalition of independent citizens groups and individuals in the New York City metropolitan area. SAFE is dedicated to stopping and reversing the environmental and health impacts of JFK, LaGuardia and Newark Airports. Vocal on many of the environmental problems caused by airports, they are extremely upset about a recent decision to bring more aircraft through the airports in their area (SAFE Home Page, 1998). In January '98, airlines were given exemptions to slot limitations, adding 21 additional daily operations at the airport despite a federally enacted Ã¢â¬ËHigh Density Rule' that places limits on the number of flights into and out of Kennedy, LaGuardia, and other major airports (Bertrand, 1998). SAFE is currently looking to expand their scope to deal nationally and internationally with the aircraft noise issue. Some groups are set up for a specific cause, like that of the Airport Communities Coalition (ACC) in Seattle, Washington. They are opposing a proposal to add a third runway to the Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (Sea-Tac). It was formed in 1993 because thousands of people living there claim that building a third runway would seriously diminish the quality of life in their communities and further pollute their air and water (ACC Home Page, 1998). The Seattle area also host the site of the Regional Commission on Airport Affairs (RCAA). The RCAA is a non-profit coalition of citizen groups and cities. They believe that further expansion of Sea-Tac Airport makes no sense, costs too much, and does too much damage to too many people. They favor demand management of the airport and support alternatives to expansion such as high speed rail. They also are addressing airport noise, air, and water pollution issues. The purpose of their Home Page is to provide citizens in King County, Washington State with the latest information on airport issues but, imperatively, they are providing citizens in airport impacted communities world-wide, with information and communication. They have an impressive supporting library and extensive links to other sites around the country (RCAA Home Page, 1998). One of the largest groups is the US-Citizens Aviation Watch (US-CAW). They are a national organization comprised of local airport groups, environmental organizations, and civic groups. They are concerned about noise, environment, public health and other quality of life issues related to aviation operations. While claiming to be a Ã¢â¬Ënational' association, they are linked with established organizations in 26 countries throughout the world. US-CAW's mission is to unite organizations and municipalities. Coalitions are forming from coast to coast. Their goal is to represent the interest of individual citizens (US-CAW Home Page, 1998). The focus of these coalitions is not limited to just opposing new airports or expansion issues. In areas where our military forces are drawing down, a viable option to building a new airport would be to convert a closing military airfield. Local residents have even put up resistance in this endeavor. One example is the growing concern over converting the closed El Toro Marine Corps Air Station in Orange County, California. The residents there have put up an impressive opposition Internet site to keep everyone informed on the issues. This Internet access affords the on-line populous, growing by millions each year, to be a key stroke away from getting involved. Their business and homeowner associations of the El Toro Coalition (ETC) favor non-aviation reuses for the field because there are at least eight airports with medium and long haul capability (five of which are international) within a 100 mile radius of El Toro (ETC Home Page, 1998). Another example is where the Department of Defense (DOD) is considering transferring what was once Homestead Air Reserve Base to Dade County, FL. County officials plan to develop an international Ã¢â¬Å"hubÃ¢â¬ airport serving South Florida and competing directly with Miami International Airport. In response to the proposed airport development project, a coalition of the country's top environmental advocacy organizations successfully mobilized in an effort to persuade the White House to save Everglades National Park and other unique ecological treasures in the area (Natural Resources Defense Council, 1998). The project is now on hold. It doesn't mater where, why, or who is opposing expanding aviation infrastructure, the issues are the same across their tally sheets. You don't have to be an environmental expert to understand there is an impact from aviation on a community. Air and water pollution, the impact on land values, health, and quality of life are all major issues. The most apparent environmental issue is that of noise and it appears to rank as the number one concern from opposition groups. No matter how well an airport serves its community, one of the most common complaints is the noise it produces. It has been the greatest barrier to building a new airport or its expansion (Wells, 1996). Opposition groups contend that airport noise is not just a minor annoyance that people living near airports should be Ã¢â¬Ëgood sports' about and learn to ignore. Outside of the fact that it is a shear nuisance, aircraft noise may be posing more of a health problem than it suggest. In a study by the Health Subcommittee of the Environmental Impact Committee of the Regional Coalition on Airport Affairs, Dr. Dennis Hansen reported that airport noise results in a significant increase in community use of tranquilizers and sleeping pills. Airport communities have an increased rate of alcoholism, and admissions to psychiatric hospitals. He states airport related noise can literally drive people mad, has been positively associated with the development of hypertension, high cholesterol, and high blood sugar, all of which place people at increased risk of heart disease and stroke (Hansen, 1992). Another study has been linked to aircraft noise and sleep depravation. It has been argued that suburban residents desire a noise level no higher than 30 decibels (dB) at night when they sleep. The maximum noise level from an aircraft taking off would be approximately 90 dB. A noise level of 90 dB is roughly equivalent to that of a power mower outdoors. At least 75 percent of sleeping people will be awakened if exposed to noise levels over 74 dB. More importantly, over 50 percent of people will not be able to go to sleep if exposed to noise levels higher than 74 dB. The resulting sleep deprivation would potentially affect over 100,000 to 700,000 people living in the communities surrounding a commercial airport (Walther, 1997). Chronic noise is also having a devastating effect on the academic performance of children in noisy homes and schools. Cornell University researchers have confirmed that children in schools bombarded by frequent aircraft noise don't learn to read as well as children in quiet schools. The one major reason they have discovered is that the kids tune out speech in the racket (Science Daily, 1998). Speech and communication are affected when noise levels exceed 60 decibels. Excessively noisy schools have been shown to adversely affect the ability to solve simple problems as well as to learn mathematics and reading (Lang, 1997). The Airport and Airways Development Act of 1970 established a requirement that airport sponsors must afford the opportunity for public hearings for projects involving the location of an airport, a new runway or extension (Wells, 1996). This Act legally affords opposition groups the opportunity to voice their concerns and be represented in the proper forum. Implementation of operational airport noise abatement strategies is the airport's responsibility. The DOD took an early lead in working toward airport compatibility in 1973 with policies concerning public and private land in the vicinity of military airfields. The military's Air Installation Compatible Land Use Zones program evolved into the government's program for Noise Control And Compatibility Planning For Airports (AC 150/5020-1), or what have become commonly known as Ã¢â¬ËFAR Part 150 Studies.' (Gesell, 1992) These Noise and Land Use Compatibility Studies consider and evaluate programs to reduce the impact of airport noise on communities. Through fiscal year 1998, there are currently 235 airports participating in the program, 217 airports have received Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) grants for Part 150 studies, and 193 have been approved for Noise Compatibility Programs (FAA, 1998). Aircraft noise is also being reduced through technological advances and procedural techniques. Engineers have designed quieter engines and made airframe modifications, but opposition groups feel a lot more needs to be done. Aircraft designers feel they are at a point where any further advances will be technically difficult, very costly, and degrade aircraft performance (Wells, 1996). With the growth of aviation at its current rate, numbers of flights are going to increase. This can only mean more noise, even if it is a little quieter. Deregulation of the airline industry has changed the way companies do business. The turning point was the Airline Deregulation Act, approved by Congress on Oct. 24, 1978 and signed into law by President Carter. Many of the benefits are positive, for instance lower fares and more choices. This has created a massive impact and dramatic increase in the number of passengers throughout the system. Domestic and international air travel have grown by staggering proportions over the last several decades, and that growth is expected to continue. Citing President Clinton's policies and the third longest economic expansion since World War II, Secretary of Transportation, Rodney E. Slater, announced that U.S. airlines have recorded a third straight year of strong growth; an encouraging sign that a continued upward trend is expected into the 21st Century. That announcement came on the heels of the release of the FAA's commercial aviation forecast, which revealed that an unprecedented 605 million people flew on the nation's air carriers in 1996 with enplanements expected to grow to nearly one billion by 2008 (Slater, 1997). Technological advances, developments in commerce and marketing and continuing changes in the airline industry are likely to fuel this growth. However, this projected growth will be impossible unless we adequately invest in the infrastructure to support it. The national airport system is the heart of that infrastructure. Failure to invest in needed capacity-enhancing projects, such as additional runways, runway extensions or new airport construction would severely hamper the growth of the industry and ultimately undermine the ability of our nation to compete in the global economy. Noise pollution affects millions of Americans, but citizens disturbed by aircraft noise constitute one of the most vocal groups speaking out against noise. Opposition groups like the Regional Commission on Airport Affairs and the US-Citizens Aviation Watch are growing in strength and have the potential of global reach through the World Wide Web. Airport noise can seriously affect the health and psychological well-being of those effected, especially when continued exposure is present. It has been the greatest barrier to building a new airport or its expansion. The government is not standing idly by. Many programs such as the Noise and Land Use Compatibility Studies have been put into action and are making funds available to help alleviate the problems in communities hardest hit. Aviation enplanements are growing. Forecasters are predicting that traffic shows no sign of decreasing well into the new century. This projected growth will be impossible unless we adequately invest in the infrastructure to support it.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
John Locke is one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers and is famously known for asserting that all humans have natural rights. He also believed that humans are born with clean slates, and that the environment humans grow in, especially at a young age, has massive influences on aspects of their personalities, ideals, and motivations. Shelley was most definitely influenced by this claim when writing Frankenstein. As the reader, we can see the monster that Victor Frankenstein creates grow up alone, without guidance, and be formed by the experiences it is put through while trying to survive. Its emotions and beliefs throughout the book were merely a result of its experiences as it encounters the harsh reality of the world. MaryÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Listening to the monsterÃ¢â¬â¢s story for the first time, it becomes evident to both the reader and Frankenstein that the monster initially lacked knowledge and experience with the world, however it adapted through trial- and-error and adjusting its actions based on newfound knowledge. This is especially proven when the monster was incapable of even being able to discern between its senses; it took him Ã¢â¬Å"a long time before [he] learned to distinguish between the operations of [his] various sensesÃ¢â¬ (Shelley 70). Shelley shows that, despite having a fresh slate, the monster had a developed body and brain. After being abandoned by Victor, the monster had to get accustomed to bright and dark, cold and heat, and hunger. Just as a child would, the monster learned about the world from making mistakes. For example, when he Ã¢â¬Å"found a fire which had been left by some wandering beggars, and was overcome with delight at the warmth [he] experienced from it,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"thrust [his] hand into the live embers, but quickly drew it out again with a cry of painÃ¢â¬ (Shelley 71). Probably the biggest parallel between the monster and a child would be with learning how to communicate. While learn ing about the world, the monster found that humans fear it, and run away from it. As a result, the monster stayed away from humans and found refuge near a cottage. The monster tries to learn the language by listening to the group of cottagers converse. He Ã¢â¬Å"found that Ã¢â¬ ¦ people possessed a method of